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ما 2 مهمان و بدون عضو آنلاین داریم

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Calligonum

Calligonum

Several years ago, preparation of Polygonaceae family in the form of Flora of Iran was the subject of my
research. However investigation on the rich materials from different areas particularly with focusing on the
genus Calligonum have been provided. Since long time ago from the appearance of Flora Iranica (Rechinger & Schiman-Czeika, 1968) and some other local Floras not any taxonomic investigation have been considered on this genus. The major distribution pattern of the genus are concentrated in the Central and Middle Asia (Komarov, 1936; Grubov, 2005). In Iran according the last enumerating about 13 species are well known (Rechinger & Schiman-Czeika, 1968). Based on the new identifications the number of species increased to 19 species (Rechinger, 1977; Assadi, 1989; Mozaffarian, 2005). In this revision, a new species is described and the number of species is increased to 23, nine of which endemics to Iran. It seems that in
desert and sand dune regions some more species may be found. Used characters The author concentrated to use only the reproductive characters such as fruit characters for the delimitation of the taxa. For this reason the author tried to study the fruit structure on the living plants, on the other hand it was tried to collect the fruits separately from herbarium specimens for better analyzing the ramification of the setae, final segments, direction of fruits and the type of the wings (Komarov, 1936). With careful analyzing of
the fruits, finally the useful taxonomic characters came out to separate the related taxa. For separation of the
taxa following characters were used.
1. Fruit ornamentation: Some species showing only the winged fruit (sect. Ptereococcus). But in C. junceum
(sect. Calliphysa) the fruit surrounded by the membranaceous sac. There are very frequent cases that
the fruits are setiferous, in which the setae are distributed on the wing margins, on the ribs or directly
on the nuts. Several status of setae were seen on the fruits.
1.1. Setae uniseriate: In which the setae situated uniseriately on the wing margins or on the ribs.
1.2. Setae biseriate: in which the setae situated in double series on the wings margin. In some cases the
ribs of fruit showing a tendency to divide into two rudimentary or abbreviated wings, such as C.
polygonoides , the ribs becoming convex and the setae are found on the convex ribs.
1.3. Setae polyseriate: In which the setae situated in several series on the flattened ribs or on the
rudimentary wings surfaces, e.g C. molle.
1.4. Sparse setae: In some cases such as C. arborescens, C. griseum and C. crinitum, the setae are
directly on the short abbreviated ribs or directly on the nuts (not on the wing). In all these cases for separating the related taxa, length, ramification and direction of setae were carefully checked
2. Wings and setae: The nut in some species have the distinct wings, in which partly with simple and partly
such as: C. persicum, C. leucocladum var. serratum have the double wings, which are very useful
taxonomic characters. Some species in setiferous groups, usually showing two different types
2.1. The setiferous fruits with a short secondary or rudimentary wings, in which the setae situated on the
margin of the rudimentary wings or on the ribs.
2.2. The setae situated directly on the nut (not on the rudimentary wings).
3. Fruit coiling: In few cases such as: C. persicum, C. bungei the furrows of the fruits are straight, but in some cases such as C. stenopterum only the wings and furrows are twisted. In some other cases the fruit
twisting depending the species and the direction of furrow in clockwise or anticlockwise.
4. Setae ramification: Except in few cases such as C.alatosetosum that some simple setae are found on the
wing margin, in all other species, the setae are dichotomously branched along their length. In C.densum, C. molle, and C. caput-medusae the dichotomous branches are very dense. The density of setae is depended to the number of setae and the type of ramification, which are concealing totally the surfaces
of the fruit and the nut not visible.